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THE SHIP                                     83

be carried out with ease at the same time as loading and
discharge. By means of a hose or pipe connected with the
oil tanks, in the case of an oil burner, bunkering can be done
without any inconvenience of dirt, and the full operations
of loading or discharge may be carried out in an unin-
terrupted fashion while bunkering is in progress.

The chief centres of shipbuilding in the United Kingdom
are the Clyde, Tyne, Mersey, Tees, Wear, and Belfast. The
British shipbuilding centres produce much of the world's
tonnage per year, although such countries as Sweden,
Holland, Denmark, the United States, Germany, Japan,
and Russia are interested in this trade, and produced
annually a large number of ships.

For a vessel to start trading she must be seaworthy and
fit. It is the master's duty to provide a steamer that is
"tight, staunch and fit in every way for the voyage in
prospect." A ship need not be registered or classified with
the societies such as Lloyd's Register, Bureau Veritas, or the
American Bureau, although the advantages of registra-
tion and classification are many.

In addition the vessel may be unseaworthy apart from
build, etc., if she is under-manned, under-equipped, or not
fit for the carriage of cargo.

Owing to the agitation of Samuel Plunsoll, who entered
Parliament in 1868, the Government introduced in 1870 a
bill upon the subject of load lines. This bill was withdrawn,
and in 1871 an Act was passed dealing with defective vessels.
In 1873 a Royal Commission was appointed with the result
that an Act was passed in the same year. Another Act was
passed hi 1875 upon the subject, and again repealed in 1876
by another Act. Finally, in 1890, an Act was passed, making
it compulsory for all British vessels over So tons net
register, with the exception of coastal boats and fishing
boats, to have a line painted on the side of the vessel, and
the vessel is not albwed to load more than will sink the ship
to this mark. These provisions, it may be observed, were
contained in Sect. 438 of the Merchant Shipping Act, 1894,
which was subsequently still further adjusted by the